N-Pentane (English: Pentane), chemical formula C5H12, the fifth member of alkanes. There are two isomers of N-Pentane: isopentane (boiling point 28°C) and neopentane (boiling point 10°C). The term "pentane" usually refers to N-Pentane, which is its linear isomer.
Alkanes were first named using customary nomenclature. But this nomenclature is difficult to use for alkanes with many carbon numbers and many isomers. So someone proposed a derivative nomenclature, which regards all alkanes as methane derivatives. For example, isobutane is called 2-methylpropane.
This passage is going to talk about the followings of N-Pentane:
(1) Pentane derivatives
(3) Various chemical reactions of N-Pentane
As the number of carbon atoms increases, the number of possible isomers also increases. The member of the alkane series pentane C 5 H 12 has three isomers. These five carbon atoms can be arranged in a continuous chain to form N-Pentane, one branch to form isopentane, or two branches to form neopentane. Each of these pentanes is a well-known organic species, and its physical and chemical properties are different from the other two.
The melting point of N-Pentane is higher than that of isopentane, because it can be rod-shaped and adjacent molecules can be closely packed together. But the melting point of neopentane is more than 100° higher than any isomer. The space-filling model of neopentane shows that it is an almost spherical molecule that can be easily packed into almost perfect crystals. The boiling points of the three isomers are almost opposite. Long N-Pentane molecules are arranged quite neatly together; they provide the greatest opportunity for intermolecular attraction. Therefore, evaporation occurs slower than from its branched isomers. Spherical neopentane molecules have less attractive force between each other and therefore have a low boiling point. Generally, the more symmetrical a molecule is, the higher its melting point and the lower its boiling point relative to its isomers.
The light hydrocarbon recovery device in the oilfield sometimes reduces the natural gas condensate and separates it into products such as propane, n-butane, isobutane, N-Pentane, isopentane, etc. What is the use?
In the presence of aluminum trichloride, isopentane can be prepared by isomerization of N-Pentane; it is also used as an extraction solvent, an ideal foaming agent for polystyrene, and a lubricant for liquid air machines; used for low-temperature thermometers, Artificial ice, anesthetics, and synthetic pentanol, etc.
Isopentane is a blending agent to increase the octane number of "unleaded" gasolines. It is also an important raw material for the production of isoprene; isoamylene and isoprene can be produced by dehydrogenation, and isoamyl alcohol can be obtained by chlorination and hydrolysis. It is a raw material and solvent for organic synthesis.
Butane can be dehydrogenated to produce butadiene, and oxidized to produce acetic acid and maleic anhydride.
Isobutane is mainly used to produce isooctane by hydrocarbonification with isobutene, which is used as a gasoline octane improver. It can also be used as a refrigerant.
A mixture of n-butane and isobutane with a specific composition is an aerosol propellant with excellent performance.
Pentane burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water:
C5H12 + 8 O2 → 5 CO2 + 6 H2O
Similar to other alkanes, pentane can also undergo free radical chlorination reactions:
C5H12 + Cl2 → C5H11Cl + HCl
This type of reaction is non-selective, and the products are 1-, 2-, 3-chloropentane and a mixture of multiple substituted derivatives. Other halogens can also undergo radical substitution reactions with pentane.
In addition to n-butane, N-Pentane can also produce maleic anhydride:
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 + 5 O2 → C2H2(CO)2O + 5 H2O + CO2
Saturated vapor pressure
The saturated vapor pressure at different temperatures shows that it is 5.0KPa at -30°C, 8.9KPa at -20°C, and 15KPa at -10°C, which means that N-Pentane is particularly volatile
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