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Safe handling & Storage and disposal of Formic acid

Safe handling & Storage and disposal of Formic acid

Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid with the chemical formula HCOOH. For humans, it is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis, as well as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. In nature, it is used as a venom by ants and bees. Usually found in aqueous solutions, but pure liquids and vapors are flammable and highly corrosive.

This passage is going to talk about the followings of formic acid:

(1) The physical and chemical properties of formic acid

(2) The dangers of formic acid

(3) How to prevent harm to the human body?

 

(1) The physical and chemical properties of formic acid

Formic acid (collectively referred to as methanesulfonic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid with the chemical formula HCOOH. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis, occurs naturally, and is most commonly found in certain ants.

Formic acid is flammable. It can be arbitrarily miscible with water, ethanol, ether and glycerin, miscible with most polar organic solvents, and has a certain solubility in hydrocarbons.

The relative density of formic acid (d204) is 1.220. The refractive index is 1.3714. The heat of combustion is 254.4 kJ/mol, the critical temperature is 306.8 ℃, and the critical pressure is 8.63 MPa. The flash point is 68.9 ℃ (open cup). The density is 1.22g/cm3, and the saturated vapor pressure (24°C) is 5.33 kPa.

High concentration of formic acid tends to freeze in winter.

Incompatibility of formic acid: strong oxidizer, strong alkali, active metal powder.

Hazardous characteristics of formic acid: its vapor and air form an explosive mixture, which can cause combustion and explosion when exposed to open flames and high heat energy. Reacts with strong oxidants.

Formic acid has solubility: miscible with water, insoluble in hydrocarbons, miscible in ethanol, ether, and soluble in benzene.

 

(2) The dangers of formic acid

Inhalation, ingestion or skin contact formic acid may cause harm. The adverse effects of exposure are similar to those of acids (such as HCl). Contact with liquid can corrode the eyes and cause severe burns, tearing, corneal swelling, ulcers and scar formation. Skin contact may cause skin irritation, allergic reactions, burns and ulcers. Inhalation may cause asthma attacks due to allergic respiratory tract allergies, respiratory tract chemical burns, dizziness, nausea, itching, burning and swelling. Ingestion may cause severe burns of the digestive tract, accompanied by abdominal pain, vomiting and possible death. Central nervous system depression is also a common consequence.

 

(3) How to prevent harm to the human body?

Improper handling of formic acid may cause injury. The following are some first aid measures.

Inhalation of formic acid: quickly leave the scene to a place with fresh air. Keep the airway unobstructed. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If breathing stops, give artificial respiration immediately. Seek medical attention.

Ingestion of formic acid: rinse mouth with water, drink milk or egg white. Seek medical attention.

Skin contact: Take off contaminated clothing immediately and rinse with plenty of running water for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention.

Eye contact: Lift the eyelid immediately, and rinse thoroughly with plenty of running water or normal saline for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention.

If formic acid leaks, please evacuate personnel from the leaked contaminated area to a safe area, and isolate them, strictly restrict access. Cut off the fire source. It is recommended that emergency personnel wear self-contained positive pressure respirators and wear acid-alkali-proof overalls. Do not directly touch the leakage. Cut off the source of leakage as much as possible. Prevent entry into restricted spaces such as sewers and flood drains.

Small leakage: Use sand or other non-combustible materials to absorb or absorb. You can also sprinkle the floor with soda ash, then wash it with plenty of water, and put it into the waste water system after the washing water is diluted.

A large number of leaks: construct dikes or dig pits for storage. Cover with foam to reduce steam hazards. The spray-like water cools and dilutes the steam. Use a pump to transfer to a tanker or a special collector for recycling or transport to a waste disposal site for disposal.

 

 

 


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